The TV presenter, 60, was left with a sizeable bandage after having the procedure.
He shared a snap on Instagram showing him smiling, with the white pad taped over one of his eyes.
"Finally got the INCREDIBLY frustrating 'floaters' sucked out of my left eyeball," Schofield told his fans.
Watch: Phillip Schofield told he has an 'inner struggle' by This Morning guest
The star was clearly in good spirits, joking about the tan lines that he could get as a result of the bandage.
Posting a photograph of him soaking up some sun, he quipped: "Factor 50 on half my face or the patch mark will last for days."
Schofield had previously spoken out on This Morning about his struggle with eye floaters, saying that it was 'debilitating'.
"My vision is like a filthy bathroom window drifting across my eyes, and it drives me crazy," he told his co-host Holly Willoughby on the ITV programme last year.
Discussing what could be done, he went on: "I am at the cutting edge of all this, let me tell you, because the only way to treat them is a vitrectomy, where they suck the jelly out of your eye.
"Within 12 months you get a cataract, so they are trying to pioneer a half vitrectomy which started in America – see I know a lot about this!
"You have half the vitrectomy, take the floaters out, but you don’t get a cataract."
According to the NHS, eye 'floaters and flashes' are fairly common, particularly in 'older people'.
"They're usually caused by a harmless process called posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), where the gel inside your eyes changes."