What is bowel cancer? Early symptoms and how to get checked

What is bowel cancer? Early symptoms and how to get checked

Nearly one million people in England will be invited to undertake DIY checks for bowel cancer, NHS officials have confirmed.

More than 800,000 people will be invited to carry out ”at home” checks as part of an extension on their programme to keep rates down.

All adults over the age of 54 are to be sent at-home screening kits as part of a phased expansion of the project, NHS England confirmed.

It is hoped that by expanding the screening to include younger adults who are not normally included, it will help improve detection of bowel cancer when it is at an earlier stage and in turn lower the rates of diagnosis seen across the country and save thousands of lives.

The Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) is a test conducted at home, where people put a small faecal sample in a tube and send it in the post to a laboratory where it is tested for microscopic amounts of blood.

Results are then sent back to participants, along with information about further tests, if needed.

At present rates of testing, only two out of 100 people who use the kit currently need further testing.

Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK and the second-biggest cancer killer, with thousands of people dying from it every year.

Here is what we know about the condition, its symptoms and how to check if you have it.

What is bowel cancer?

The bowel is split into two parts, the small bowel and the large bowel. The large bowel includes the colon, the rectum, and the bowel opening (anus). When cells in these parts of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably, invading and destroying healthy tissue, bowel cancer is diagnosed.

Fight CRC, a colorectal cancer advocacy organisation raising awareness of the disease, says about 90 per cent of bowel cancer cases have occurred in people aged over 50 since the mid-1990s. However, the number of new cases has sharply risen among adults under the age of 50.

How common is bowel cancer in the UK?

The disease is the second-most deadly form of cancer in the UK after lung cancer.

Bowel Cancer UK says one in 15 men and one in 18 women will develop the condition at some point.

Roughly 43,000 people are diagnosed with bowel cancer in the UK every year, with around 268,000 living with the disease.

Bowel Cancer UK reported that two in five people couldn’t name a single bowel cancer symptom. However, the NHS has now said that a record number of people in England are having bowel cancer checks following the death of Deborah James.

What are the symptoms of bowel cancer?

The NHS says that more than 90 per cent of people with bowel cancer have one of the following combinations of symptoms:

  • a persistent change in bowel habit — pooing more often, with looser, runnier poos, and sometimes stomach (abdominal) pain.

  • blood in the poo without other symptoms of piles (haemorrhoids).

  • abdominal pain, discomfort or bloating always brought on by eating.

Biggest symptom of bowel cancer not to ignore

A recent study published in BMC Primary Care involved 511 cases of cancer among 61,802 patients.

The study found rectal bleeding, also known as haematochezia, was the most common symptom. This had a specific rating of 99.4 per cent, meaning it is the most reliable indicator of bowel cancer.

Bowel cancer can in some cases cause bowel obstruction, which is when digestive waste can’t pass through the bowel. Symptoms of bowel obstruction include the following:

  • intermittent, and occasionally severe, abdominal pain always brought on by eating.

  • unintentional weight loss with persistent abdominal pain.

  • constant swelling of the tummy with abdominal pain.

  • being sick with constant abdominal swelling.

When should I see a GP?

The NHS advises people to seek medical advice if they have any of the symptoms for three weeks or more.

“Make sure you see a GP if your symptoms persist or keep coming back after stopping treatment, regardless of their severity or your age. You’ll probably be referred to hospital,” adds the national health body.

A plant-based diet has been found to help reduce a person’s risk of developing bowel cancer.

What are the risks and causes of bowel cancer?

The risk of developing bowel cancer depends on several factors, including age, genetics, and lifestyle.

Cancer Research UK says eating too much red and processed meat or eating too little fibre can increase your risk. Being overweight or obese, smoking, and drinking alcohol are also risk factors.

Family history can also affect the likelihood of you developing bowel cancer. Cancer Research UK says: “Your risk of bowel cancer is increased if you have a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, child) diagnosed with bowel cancer.”

Some medical conditions, including bowel conditions, can also increase your risk.

For more information, visit Cancer Research UK and the NHS website.