24 People Shared The Real-Life Unsolved Mysteries They Still Can't Stop Thinking About, And They Range From Unsettling To Downright Horrifying

April is almost over, folks! Once again, it's time for me to share the absolute scariest "unsolved mysteries" I've read this month with you, my fellow spooky enthusiasts. In case you're new here, every month, I ask BuzzFeed readers like you to share the creepiest real-life "unsolved mysteries." Basically, any experience you've had that you simply cannot logically explain is fair game, from ghosts to glitches to döppelgangers.

I read through hundreds of submissions every month and handpick the most unsettling, goosebump-inducing tales to share with you, my dear readers. So, without further ado, here are 24 of the very best (and creepiest) stories from this month:

1."My father passed away six years before my nephew (who would’ve been his first grandchild) was born. Around age 3 or 4, my nephew started playing with and speaking to an imaginary friend he called 'Jack,' which was my father’s name. But this gets a lot more eerie. One afternoon, while my sister was home with my nephew, she got busy with something and lost track of where he was. She looked all over the house before finding my nephew standing outside near the busy road they lived on. She ran out of the house very upset and swept him up in her arms. My nephew said to her, 'It’s OK, mommy. Jack told me not to go in the road.'"


2."I just moved to Arizona and was out doing gig jobs when I decided to stop at a grocery store to buy some snacks. I had never been to this grocery store, as I was new to town. I stood in line, and when it was my turn, I placed my items on the conveyor belt. I went up to the cashier, waiting for her to start ringing me up, but she wasn't moving. She was just staring at me like she recognized me. 'Back again?' she asked. 'Ummm, no?' I answered. She looked confused and said I had just been there a few minutes ago and bought the exact same items."

"Now I was confused. I told her I hadn't been there before, as it was actually my first ever time coming to this store. She said someone who looked exactly like me, wearing the same exact clothes, came in just a few minutes earlier and bought the same things I was buying. I was speechless and scared.

I walked out, totally confused about what had just happened. I'd never had something like that happen before and haven't again since."


Silhouette of an unidentifiable person standing in a supermarket aisle
Busà Photography / Getty Images / Jonathan Knowles / Getty Images

3."I was quite ill, about age 12 or so. My fever was very high, and I was experiencing moments of delirium. Suddenly, I heard a tiny voice telling me, 'Get up.' I sat up and left my bed on the second floor of my house, pausing only to pick up a towel in my bathroom. A voice in my head told me I would need it to stop her bleeding. I walked down the stairway to the front door and opened it. My mother had taken the day off from her teaching job because I was so sick. She tried to block the way outside, saying I was too sick to go out. I walked past her, finding that I couldn’t speak at all. She ran outside, trying to stop me and asking what I thought I was doing. I still couldn’t speak, but about halfway across the front lawn, she became adamant. My arm lifted, and I pointed to where Patchogue Road (a cross street) intersected with a small side road. As I pointed, two cars collided with a tremendous crash."

"Immediately, I felt exhausted, and I screamed, 'He hit her! Quick, she’s bleeding.' I turned to my mother, handed her the towel in my arms, and said, 'I can’t help, I’m too sick. You have to stop her bleeding.' I had forgotten my mother couldn’t stand the sight of blood, so I added, 'Just give the towel to her,' pointing to one of the neighbors. Then, I staggered back up the stairs and into my bed."

—Barbara Cook

4."In early 2000, a friend and I moved into an older apartment right outside Baltimore, MD. We were both in our early twenties and worked late at times. I had felt uneasy there several times but chalked it up to moving out for the first time. I got home from work around 9:30 p.m. one night and came home to the sound of my roommate sobbing her heart out. Like, the crying sounded so heartbreaking. She had been dealing with some guy drama recently, and I figured I'd give her some space. After about 15 minutes, I finally knocked on her bedroom door, but there was no answer. I called out for her and...nothing. The crying got fainter. I was too scared to open her door for some reason, so I went to see if her car was in the parking lot. It wasn't."

"She came home about 30 minutes after all this. I asked her if she ever felt uneasy/weird in the apartment, and she said she did. I gave us each a piece of paper and said we would write the room where we felt the strangest. We both wrote 'bathroom.'

I don't know who was crying that night. It was too clear and loud to be a neighbor. It was winter, so I don't think it was someone outside. I feel uneasy even thinking about it now. We salted the corners and doorways (that's supposed to block spirits, I've heard) and we both felt...easier after. It's been nearly 25 years, but I can still hear the crying in my mind."

—Bex, Carroll County, MD

5."Being mindful of the rising cost of groceries, I try to make sure we use up everything we have in the kitchen. One morning, I made a full pot of coffee, but my husband and I had to go out and only had time to drink one cup. I turned off the pot and just left the coffee there, thinking we would use it for our after-dinner cup. My husband ended up making K-cups after dinner, so I poured the coffee from the pot into a covered pitcher, intending to save it for the next morning."

"The next morning, we heated up two cups of plain coffee from the pitcher, and I put creamer in my cup. We sat down to watch the morning news, and I took a sip of my coffee. Something was weird — the coffee was flavored when it was supposed to be just black coffee with plain creamer. Baffled, I took another sip and was taken aback by the flavor. I asked my husband to taste his coffee, and he confirmed he was 'real coffee,' which was what he referred to his plain black coffee as. After asking him to taste mine, he wanted to know where I got the flavored creamer because he knows I can’t stand flavored creamer. He said it tasted like chocolate and cinnamon, which is exactly what I tasted.

I went back to the kitchen and dumped some creamer in the palm of my hand. I tasted it, and lo and behold, it was plain creamer. How did plain coffee coming from the same pitcher, poured into two cups, with plain creamer put into it, end up tasting like chocolate and cinnamon? As I sat puzzled, I remembered that while my cup was heating in the microwave, I sat down for a moment to plug my laptop in to charge. As I looked up, it was like the picture of the room in front of me shifted slightly before I went to get my heated cup from the microwave. I can only figure that there must have been a glitch in the matrix that changed my cup to cinnamon and chocolate and that I was meant to drink it."


Coffee being poured into a white cup, close-up of the stream and bubbles forming on the surface
Guido Mieth / Getty Images

6."My father was a doctor in a small rural town. My mom was busy raising us nine kids, so neither one could be bothered by unnecessary visitors coming to the front door. Everyone close to us knew to come to the 'side door' by the driveway instead. They eventually disconnected the doorbell at the front door altogether. Decades later, during their retirement, they both slowly developed Alzheimer's. Sometimes, one or both of them would 'hear' the front doorbell that no longer existed ring. None of us, of course, could hear it."

"One of my sisters and her family moved in after our parents went into assisted living. After their deaths, my sister would also claim to hear that bell ring, especially on our mom’s favorite days like Halloween and Christmas. We all believed it was Mom or Dad touching base with us.

One year, we had a huge extended family reunion for Thanksgiving at the house in the backyard. We were talking about us occasionally hearing the bell, and our aunt from back East laughed and said that was nonsense. Right after that, during a lull in the conversation, we all heard the unmistakable sound of the doorbell ringing, even there in the backyard! We had to show Aunt Connie the snipped wires to the doorbell so she'd believe us."


7."When father passed away, we had to clean out his home. It was very sad for all of us. One item of his I had to have was this miniature grandfather clock. I had given it to him as a Christmas gift years earlier and hated the clock because it would chime all hours of the night and wake me up during visits, but it reminded me of him, so I wanted it. I opened the back, took out the batteries so it wouldn’t chime, and put it on my bookcase next to his military flag. Three days passed, and that darn clock began chiming one evening! We all ran to the bookcase, and I pulled it down off the shelf, turned it over, opened the back...and there were NO batteries! My husband and kids gasped! My explanation was that my dad came to play a joke on us one last time. It is never chimed again after that. Thanks for the visit, Dad. I missed you."

—Connie June

8."When I was around 8 years old, I had what I suppose would be described as an 'imaginary friend.' She was a woman I always thought to be in her mid-twenties. She wasn’t like a friend I played with or had adventures with or anything, but like a much older sister who looked out for me, emotionally supported me, and helped me cope with difficult situations. It was nothing majorly dramatic, just basic life stuff like coping with broken friendships, school stresses, adolescent issues, etc. I came from a stable, loving family with amazing parents and a sister who was very close in age to me and with whom I had a close relationship, so it was a bit odd that this lady had entered my life. She never had a name — I always just called her 'Lady.'"

"My family knew about her and didn’t really make a big deal about it, as no detrimental issues arose from it. When I was about 16, Lady told me that she was sorry and she’d always love me, but that she had to leave. I was very upset, and my mom tried to comfort me. Mom was exceptionally good at sketching portraits, so she offered to try to sketch Lady so I would always have an image of her. We sat together and after a lot of description, corrections, and re-sketching, Mum produced a very good likeness of Lady. I was so happy! I treasured the image.

Roll on just over 20 years later, and my husband and I were moving into a new, larger house. With the extra room, I’d taken back boxes of books that I’d previously stored at my parents' house. As we were sorting through the boxes, my picture of Lady fell out of one of my childhood books. My husband picked it up, exclaiming about what a beautiful sketch of me it was and asking who had done it. It was me! Without a doubt, it was a perfect sketch of me in my late twenties.I look vastly different as an adult than I did as a child. I had short, fair hair as a child, which had darkened considerably as I’d got older and is now long. With the way I do my makeup, the shape of my face having thinned out a lot as I’ve aged, and the general maturing of my features, I bear little resemblance to the 8-year-old child I was. Yet here was a sketch of me as I am now, right down to some prominent moles I have on my face that weren’t there when I was small. I showed my family, and they were shocked.The only explanation we can think of is that Lady was the older me traveling back in time to help the younger me navigate life. At the age of 16, I was becoming the woman I am now, so Lady had to leave. It also explains why she never had a name!"

—Nicci, UK

Person with bangs and turtleneck, bold lipstick, looking at camera
Taylor Swift / Republic Records

9."I was driving from Guelph (city in Ontario) to Burlington (another city) alone. It was around 9 p.m., and I had just finished a workshop. The drive along the highway is relatively easy and usually non-eventful. It was a clear night, however about 25 minutes into my drive, the thickest fog I have ever seen came in over the highway. It became incredibly silent, and I could no longer hear the sound of my car. It looked like I was driving into a swirling tunnel of fog. Suddenly, my radio cut out. It was incredibly silent, and I was scared shitless. I used everything in me to focus, as I could no longer see the road under my car."

"Finally, after what seemed like forever, I came out of the other side, the fog cleared, and all sound (engine and radio) came back. I looked ahead and discovered that I was just outside my neighborhood, so I drove the one minute it took to get home. When I arrived, the clock said 9:25 p.m. The trip is normally 80 minutes, but it took me only 25. I was so freaked out that I asked my bestie, who lived with me at the time, what time it was. They looked confused and told me 9:25 p.m. It seriously scared me to death...I still have no idea what the heck happened there!"


10."I was sleeping overnight in my Dad’s hospice room in a recliner. The hospice was in an older house, and there were only two hospice residents staying there at any time. It was a holiday, and the volunteer staff were off that night to be with their own families. I was awake most of the night trying to settle Dad in and keep him comfortable while he restlessly picked at his blankets, out of his mind from the cancer and morphine. When he finally fell asleep in the early hours of the morning, I went to the kitchen, where I found an older female volunteer had arrived. She was quietly cooking breakfast."

"Directly behind the stove was a staircase to the upstairs, where the bathroom was. The back of the stove abutted the staircase wall, and the volunteer could easily see the base of the stairs from where she was standing. I walked past her and up the stairs to use the restroom.

Just before flushing, I heard someone run up the stairs extremely quickly and stand outside the door, the floorboards creaking. The doorknob jiggled, and I called out, 'Just a second.' A couple of seconds later, I opened the door to find…nothing. I looked in the two upstairs bedrooms, but no one was there. Uneasy, I came downstairs and told the volunteer she could use the bathroom now. She said she didn't need to. I asked her if there was anyone else around who needed to use it, and she looked at me with concern. Apparently, we were the only two in the house besides my Dad and the other resident.

I told her what happened and she said, 'You’re not the first person that’s happened to.' It made the hair on the back of my neck stand straight up."


11."On Christmas Day when I was 19, my parents, my girlfriend, our two dogs, and I were all in the basement family room. The conversation turned to my invisible friend, Charlie. Charlie had been my 'friend' since I was about 2, lived behind the fireplace, and moved houses with us each time we relocated. Charlie was always the accused when it came to strange noises or misplaced objects. My parents and I were bringing my girlfriend up to speed about who and what Charlie was when we very distinctly heard a door above our heads close, followed by footsteps marching down the hall and another door closing. The dogs’ heads both swiveled as they tracked the sounds. 'Charlie!' we yelled out. I went upstairs and confirmed that there was nobody else in the house. We were alone, and all the interior doors were OPEN while both exterior doors remained locked."

—Alan, Ontario, Canada.

Person covering their eyes with hands, wearing a headband and heart-shaped necklace, in a playful pose
Island Records / UMG

12."In the 1980s, I lived with my boyfriend. Numerous times in the middle of the night, he would wake me up crying and shaking, saying he knew he was going to die soon. He was a healthy, athletic man in his twenties, so I just thought he was a very anxious person, even though he never seemed nervous in the daytime. A few months after these anxious occurrences, my boyfriend was hit by a train and killed instantly. I think he was having premonitions of his own sudden and unexpected death. Forty-plus years later, and this still breaks my heart."


13."Many years ago, probably in the '80s, we were in the kitchen as my wife prepared our evening meal. She asked me to get her a packet of sauce from the cupboard next to the worktop, stir fry sauce, or something like that. I got it out and put it on the worktop next to her. I left the kitchen, and a few minutes later, she called out, asking where the sauce was. It was gone. I showed her where I left it, but it simply wasn't there. Fortunately, there was another packet in the cupboard, so I got that out, and she made dinner with it. We carried the plates out from the kitchen and had our meal."

"Afterwards, as I returned the plates to the kitchen, I noticed the packet of sauce lying on the worktop exactly where I had left it before it disappeared. It wasn't there when we'd carried the plates out, and nobody had been back into the kitchen while we ate.

We lived in a very old house in the UK, over 200 years old. I can't recall any other weird stuff happening, although I was never very happy going down into the vaulted brick cellars after dark. Years later, I was at an event and recounted the tale to a group I was with. One of them, a lady I'd not met before, told us her handbag kept disappearing, but it generally turned up a few minutes later where she'd left it. She blamed mischievous spirits, so perhaps that's who it was all those years ago, too."


14."When I was 13, I lived in a Brazilian coastal city. The city was crowded in the summer, so all the shops would stay open late. It was 9 p.m. on a Monday, and my parents went to the supermarket, which was open until 11/12 p.m. They asked if I wanted to go, and I said no, so my parents and my brother went without me, and I stayed home alone. With the house to myself, I decided to take a long, hot shower. While I was in the shower, I heard the unmistakable sound of keys jingling, them coming in, and the bags of groceries being placed on the floor. I even clearly heard my brother's and dad's voices, as well as my mom laughing. I finished up in the bathroom and realized I forgot to bring my towel, so I called out for my mom to bring it to me, but she didn't answer."

"A few minutes later, I asked again, but still no answer. So, I went to my bedroom and put on my clothes, confused because I hadn't heard their voices again for a while. I went out to greet them, but there wasn't a single other person home. They didn't arrive for a long time after, and they swore they didn't come home early and leave again. So, whose voices were those? And why did they sound so much like my dad and brother?"


Silhouetted figure standing in a dimly lit alleyway with mist, creating a eerie atmosphere
Sasint Gallery / Getty Images

15."When I was little, my great-grandmother passed, and my grandmother kept a few of her belongings. One thing she kept was her sewing basket, which my grandma kept in the kitchen in a cupboard next to the oven with her other sewing items. Almost daily after the sewing basket arrived, weird things would happen in the house. The oven would suddenly turn on, or the rotisserie spit would start turning. The deck of cards my grandma used to play solitaire with would often end up out of the box and laid out on the table, ready for a game, even though my grandma would never leave her cards out. My grandma’s dog would frequently find herself locked in the backyard with the doggie door locked shut, which no one would ever do, as the dog, who was pretty old herself, had become the baby of the house and had free reign of the once all the kids had moved out. Apparently, the dog even got a bath one day while my grandma was at work!"

"My dad revealed that my great-grandma hated dogs and felt they stank up the house, so we figured all the activity was likely her. After the oven was turned on while my grandma (who was living alone at the time) was at work one day, she decided it was time to say goodbye to the sewing box, and nothing ever happened again."

—Lauren, California, USA

16."My aunt was sitting on the floor of her apartment, rolling a ball for her cat to play with. She watched the ball just sort of roll away...and then it simply wasn't there anymore. She looked everywhere, even moving the sofa and chair. No ball. It was a small apartment, a small room. She never found it, even when we emptied out the place when she moved out. She sat and watched it disappear in the middle of the floor. For the rest of her life, if something couldn't be found, she'd say, 'It must have gone into 'The Zone' with that cat toy.'"


17."I was about 14 years old, and my sister was 21, married, and living in a nearby town. One Thursday night, I came home late from some school activity and found my parents sitting in the living room of our house, entertaining friends of theirs. I had a terrible headache, which was very unusual, so I excused myself and went upstairs to my bedroom and lay down with the lights out. I fell sound asleep for maybe an hour. Later, I felt something tugging at my pant leg and I sat up, expecting it to be one of my parents. Instead, a tall, skinny man stood still at the foot of my bed, looking at me. He had on a hat and unusual clothing. I can't explain what exactly about it was unusual, but it just felt off, like he didn't belong. Scared, I buried my head in my pillow for a few seconds, hoping it would go away. When I looked again, he was gone."

"Still startled and somewhat in shock, I went downstairs, where my parents were still talking to the other couple. It seemed too late for them to be entertaining, as it was after 9 p.m. I asked my mother if anyone had been upstairs, and everyone looked at me dumbfounded and said no. I told them that I saw someone in my room. I tried to explain what I saw, but I found myself struggling to describe his odd clothing. They kind of chuckled, and my mom said, 'You were just having a dream.' I left the room, and the incident was not brought up again until two nights later.

On Saturday, my sister and her husband came over for dinner. After eating, we were sitting around talking, and my sister said, 'Oh, I have a fun story to tell!' She described how she and her husband went to a seance, where a person who claimed to have a contact in the spirit world asked if anyone in attendance wanted to have the spirit visit someone who wasn’t there and report back on their condition. My sister, of course, volunteered and asked to have the spirit visit me. The spirit reported to the medium that 'her brother was alright, but something was causing a pain in his head.'I asked her what night the seance was, and she said Thursday. When I asked the time, she said it was late, sometime after nine. I asked who the spirit was and if the medium had described him. My sister said the medium told them he was a carpenter from Chicago who had been killed in the Chicago fire. That was it! His clothing was what a workman or laborer of that time period would have been wearing, like a coverall. His gaunt looks were those of a hardworking man. It all made sense! He seemed serious but peaceful in the few seconds I encountered him, and something about the way his touch felt on my leg seemed reassuring."


Illustration of multiple figures surrounding a large shield, some with heads bowed, in a symmetrical composition
Louis Morel-Retz / Dea / De Agostini via Getty Images

18."One night, I had a dream that I was in a hilly wooded area and being chased by someone with a machete. Somehow, I knew that this person had killed people in a house I was running away from. I also knew what the house looked like; it was two stories. I awakened from this dream and looked at the clock. It was 2 a.m. This dream was very vivid, and it really scared me."

"The next day, I went to school and told a few friends about the dream. I also told my then-boyfriend. That evening, I was watching the news on TV, and all of a sudden, the newscaster started telling my EXACT dream. Several people were murdered in a well-known area called Laurel Canyon in Los Angeles. The house was in a wooded, hilly area and looked exactly the same as in my dream. The really freaky thing was that these murders happened at 2 in the morning — the exact time I woke up from the dream. I started crying at the revelation.

Later, these murders became known as the Laurel Canyon Murders and are still very infamous. It was like I had witnessed them as they were happening. Freaky."


19."One day, while driving home from work, I noticed a lot of traffic on the highway, which was continuously increasing. I always have my GPS on to see exactly when I will reach my destination, and it showed that the hold-up was due to a car accident. It was all red, indicating that the traffic was heavy. I saw flashing police and the firetruck lights going off ahead. I called my husband to let him know that I was stuck in traffic and would arrive home late, but he didn't immediately answer. I finally got on the highway...and there was not a trace of traffic to be found. I looked to the other side of the highway to see if maybe the accident happened on that side, but there was NOTHING. NO police. NO firetrucks. NO accident. Then, I looked at my GPS, which showed that there was no traffic anywhere on my route. In fact, there were hardly any cars on the highway at all."

"I was mere seconds away from the highway when I saw all those cars and flashing lights. What happened to them? How did they vanish so quickly? My husband saw my missed call moments later and asked why I was calling. I replied, 'I think I experienced a glitch in the matrix.'"


20."My son was about 2 and a half years old at the time. He was alone, playing in his room and laughing hysterically. I went to check on him and asked him what was so funny. He pointed to midair (at nothing) and said, 'That man! He’s so funny!' I figured he was just using his imagination, so I blew it off. About a week later, my husband, daughter, son, and I were looking at an old photo album. My son pointed to his grandfather, who died before my son had met him, and said, 'There he is! There’s that man. He’s so funny!' My husband's eyes got wide, and he silently freaked out. My son was named after his grandfather, and we believe he probably visited him to play!"

—Connie June

Child in bed looking at a glowing lantern, with a figure's outstretched hand
Artmarie / Getty Images

21."It was Christmas Eve, and I was 6. I woke up and climbed to the bottom of my bed, searching for my Christmas stocking. My family always put ours on our beds, as we didn't have a fireplace. I looked up to see a woman standing in the doorway. She looked angry. She had a red coat and a very distinct hairdo. I tried to look away, but each time I glanced back, she came closer to the side of my bed. She didn't speak; she just had her arms crossed across her chest."

"I was so scared. I had no idea who she was. My grandparents were staying for the holiday, but she wasn't my Grandmother or Mom. I finally ducked under the covers, my stocking falling to the floor. I regained my courage and looked up from the covers, only to find that she had disappeared. The stocking that had fallen, though, was inexplicably back on the bed. Everyone teased me, saying I saw Santa Claus because of the red coat.

Twenty years later, my Grandmother passed away. We were looking through a small photo album of hers from the '20s and '30s. I saw the woman from Christmas Eve in so many of the pictures with my Grandmother. I remembered that Christmas Eve was my Grandmother's birthday and wedding anniversary, and I learned that this woman was her best friend! If memory serves me right, her best friend had passed away shortly before Christmas the year I was 6. I think she apparently came to see my Grandmother but found me instead."


22."When I was a kid, my family lived in a big house in the suburbs. The front yard had this huge oak tree that was at least a century old. It was also the centerpiece of our family reunions, which always ended with all of us posing around the tree for a picture. One night, I heard big cracking noises while trying to fall asleep. I just assumed it was lightning and fell asleep. In the morning, I asked my mom about the storm, and she said there hadn't been any rain the last night. When I walked out the door that day, I looked at my front yard and felt like there was something super wrong with it. It wasn't until I got back that I realized. The tree, roots and all, had disappeared. My family moved out shortly after that."


23."When I was about 5 years old, I remember telling my mom about the man who lived in the closet. My mom sort of brushed it off as fantasy but would check my closet every night to tell me the man wasn't there. Well, one night, I woke up to hear my closet opening with that very specific creepy sound you hear in movies. I was 5 and curious, so I peeled back the covers and looked. What I saw still haunts me. There was a dark figure just sitting in the closet. All I could see was a wide grin at first. He appeared to have the silhouette of a man and made a shushing motion with his left index finger."

"I just remember freezing and being so freaked out, but I not wanting to tell my parents since they brushed it off. This figure did this every night for a week and then suddenly disappeared. I never knew who he was or why he was there, but I heard rumors that my house was built on top of a small family graveyard from the mid-1800s when I got older. I like to think he was one of the people buried there, and maybe he was just telling me to go back to sleep. He never did anything but grin and make the shushing motion. I am curious to know if he or it does it to the families that have lived there since, too."


24.And finally, "Every once in a while, I see a small silver hoop earring at the bottom of my toilet bowl. It's not an earring I've ever owned, but it's been happening off and on ever since I moved out of my parents' house in 2015. The weird part? I've moved twice since then, but I still see the earring sometimes. It looks the same each time, with the same twist design, but that shouldn't be possible, right? What are the odds of three different apartments having the same earring living in their toilet bowls? I'm never reaching my hand in there to fish it out, either, so I guess it'll keep happening."

—Jenny, Milwaukee, WI

If you enjoyed these stories, you can read a bunch more of them here.

Have you ever experienced an "unsolved mystery" like these that you just can't explain? A glitch in the matrix, run-in with a doppelgänger, paranormal experience...anything! If so, tell us about it in the comments below or via this completely anonymous form.

Note: Submissions have been edited for length and/or clarity.