More than 103,000 people in England are estimated to have had coronavirus in the week ending 19 September, according to the Office for National Statistics.
The figure is almost double the previous week (4 to 10 September) when it was 59,800.
It equates to around one in 500 people, according to the ONS, up from around one in 900.
The numbers are for infections recorded in the community and exclude hospitals, care homes and other institutional settings.
The ONS said there was evidence of higher infection rates in the North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, London and North East.
It said the West and East Midlands were also showing a small increase.
Wales' infections were estimated at 10,800 - up from 1,500 the previous week - and equating to one in 300 people.
The survey does not cover Scotland, but was extended to Northern Ireland for the first time.
The ONS estimated around one in 300 people had the virus there in the two weeks up to 19 September.
It comes as a joint statement from the UK nations confirmed the start of a second wave - and after the coronavirus alert level was raised from 3 to 4.
The statement said: "Cases are rising rapidly and we must take action to stop an exponential increase that could overwhelm our health services and aim to bring R back below 1 while minimising the impact on the economy and society."
It added: "We ask that everybody endeavours to adhere to the rules and advice designed for our safety, as this is the only way to keep the virus suppressed, and make further progress on the path back to normality.
"Failing to do so will put everyone else at risk."