On 26 August, former Girls Aloud singer Sarah Harding announced she had been diagnosed with breast cancer and it had spread to other parts of her body.
According to Breast Cancer Now, one in eight women in the UK will develop breast cancer at some point in their lifetime.
Despite this, a large number of women don’t check their breasts regularly for changes.
A recent study by Bupa and HCA Healthcare UK revealed that one in four women admit they have never examined their breasts or can’t remember the last time they did.
Joanna Franks, consultant breast and oncoplastic surgeon at HCA Healthcare UK, said: “Early diagnosis for breast cancer is so important, as it can prevent patients needing to undergo complex surgery and drug treatments.
“90 per cent of women diagnosed at an early stage will be alive and well five years post diagnosis however, this drops to just 15 per cent for those diagnosed at a later stage.”
For this reason, it’s vital that women do self-exams but just how do you do it, and what should you be looking for? Here’s everything you need to know.
What should my breasts feel like?
Before you start thinking about signs and symptoms of breast cancer, it’s important to get to know your own breasts and how they usually look and feel. That way, you can spot any changes and report them to your GP quickly.
Every woman’s breasts are different in size, shape and consistency, and the NHS states that it’s normal for one breast to be larger than the other.
It also says you might find your breasts feel different at different times of the month due to your menstrual cycle. Similarly, after the menopause, some women’s breasts can feel softer and less firm.
How do I examine my breasts?
When it comes to checking your breasts for anything unusual, the NHS says it can be helpful to stand in front of a mirror.
First, it suggests examining your breasts for any visual changes and to look with your arms by your side and also with them raised.
Then, you should continue by feeling each breast, checking everywhere there’s breast tissue, including underneath your armpit and all the way up to your collarbone.
What should I be looking for?
Aside from finding a noticeable lump, breast cancer can have a number of different symptoms.
The NHS suggests seeing your GP is you notice any of the following changes:
a change in the size, outline or shape of your breast
a change in the look or feel of your skin, such as puckering or dimpling
a new lump, thickening or bumpy area in one breast or armpit that is different from the same area on the other side
nipple discharge that's not milky
bleeding from your nipple
a moist, red area on your nipple that doesn't heal easily
any change in nipple position, such as your nipple being pulled in or pointing differently
a rash on or around your nipple
any discomfort or pain in one breast, particularly if it's a new pain and doesn't go away (although pain is only a symptom of breast cancer in rare cases)
When and how often should I check my breasts?
You can check your breasts any time of the day, and anywhere, whether that’s sitting on the sofa or when you’re getting dressed.
However, some people do find it easier to notice changes in the shower or bath, by running a soapy hand over each breast and under each armpit.
While there is no specific number of times you should be checking your breasts, breast cancer charity CoppaFeel! suggests doing so at least once a month.
This way, you will build confidence of knowing what is normal for you and will notice any unusual changes quickly.
Is it normal to have breast lumps?
According to the NHS, lots of women have breast lumps and nine out of 10 are not cancerous.
However, if you find changes in your breast that aren’t normal for you it’s best to see your GP as soon as possible.
What is a mammogram and when should I have one?
A mammogram is an X-ray of your breasts, which typically takes place in a breast screening unit.
Mammograms can help detect small areas of calcium in the breast tissue, called calcification.
Calcification can develop because of non-cancerous changes in the breast, however it can also be an early sign of cancer. Experienced technicians and doctors will be able to determine whether or not the calficication found is benign or requires further tests.
Currently, mammograms are offered to women who are 50 to 70-years-old every three years. However, the NHS is in the process of extending the programme as a trial, offering screening to some women aged 47 to 73.